Footnotes (Live Links)

[Page numbers refer to the paperback]

Footnotes for Introduction

p. 5 n. 1: Arnold Toynbee, Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England (London: 1884; reprinted London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1913), p. 64.

p. 5 n. 2: Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776), Book 1, Chapter 1.

Footnotes for Chapter 1

p. 12 n. 3: Robert E. Schofield, The Lunar Society of Birmingham: a social history of provincial science and industry in eighteenth-century England (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963), p. 24.

p. 17 n. 9: Benjamin Franklin to Matthew Boulton, May 22, 1765, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 19 n. 12: Boulton to Franklin, February 22, 1766, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 19 n. 13: Darwin to Boulton, March 11, 1766.

p. 20 n. 14: Franklin to Boulton, March 19, 1766, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 21 n. 15: Samuel Smiles, Lives of Boulton and Watt (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1865), p. 186.

p. 23 n. 16: Joseph Priestley, The History and Present State of Electricity (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013; originally published in 1767), p. 339.

p. 24 n. 17: The Correspondence of Jeremy Bentham (London: University College London Press, 2017), Vol. 1, p. 226.

p. 29 n. 22: Edinburgh Review, Vol. IX (October 1806-January 1807), p. 147.

Footnotes for Chapter 2

p. 38 n. 2: “The ‘Palmerston Zoo’: The Bestial British Intelligence of Shelburne and Bentham,” Schiller Institute 1994 conference.

p. 40 n. 4: Paul Gallagher, “Ireland, Sir William Petty, and British ‘Population Studies,’The New Federalist, January, 16, 1995. History of Economic Thought website, http://www.hetwebsite.net/het/

p. 43 n. 10: Benjamin Franklin, Autobiography (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1848), p. 425.

p. 44 n. 11: The Works of Benjamin Franklin (Boston: Hilliard, Gray, and Co., 1849), Vol. VII, p. 556.

p. 44 n. 12: Benjamin Franklin, An Address to the Good People of Ireland, On Behalf of America, (Brooklyn, New York: Historical Printing Club, 1891). pp. 22-23.

p. 47 n. 21: Edward C. Carter II, The Political Activities of Mathew Carey, Nationalist, 1760-1814, microfilmed by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan, and available from Google Books.

Footnotes for Chapter 3

p. 56 n. 1: Benjamin Franklin, Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, 1751, Founders Online, U. S. National Archives.

p. 58 n. 4: Jefferson to Small, May 7, 1775, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 59 n. 5: Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1953), Volume 2, p. 546.

p. 59 n. 6: Bentham’s essay “A Short Review of the Declaration.”

p. 61 n. 8: A copy of Franklin’s plan is exhibited online by the Library of Congress.

p. 65 n. 11: Carson Holloway and Bradford Wilson (eds.), The Political Writings of Alexander Hamilton, 1769-1789 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2017), Vol. 1, p. 171

p. 67 n. 14: Nigel Ashton and Clarissa Campbell Orr (eds.), An Enlightenment Statesman in Whig Britain: Lord Shelburne in Context, 1737-1805 (Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: The Boydell Press, 2011), p. 108.

p. 68 n. 15: Jefferson to Randolph, September 16, 1781, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 68 n. 16: Randolph to Jefferson, October 9, 1781. Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 70 n. 18: The Wealth of Nations (Edinburgh: Oliphant, Waugh and Innes, 1817), Vol. III, p. 161.

p. 70 n. 19: Edmond George Petty-Fitzmaurice, Life of William, Earl of Shelburne (London: MacMillan and Co., 1876), Vol. 3, pp. 386-87.

p. 71 n. 21: Bernard Mallet, Mallet du Pan and the French Revolution (London: Longmans, Green, & Co.), 1902.

p. 72 n. 26: Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia (Boston: Wells and Lilly, 1829), p. 172.

p. 72 n. 27: Ibid., p. 172.

p. 73 n. 28: Ibid., p. 171.

p. 73 n. 29: Ibid., p. 183.

p. 73 n. 30: Ibid., p. 185.

p. 74 n. 31: Eli F. Heckscher, The Continental System: An Economic Interpretation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1922), pp. 21-22.

Footnotes for Chapter 4

p. 81 n. 3: Proceedings of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government: 1786, Yale Law School, the Avalon Project online.

p. 83 n. 5: “Shays’ Rebellion & the Making of a Nation,” Springfield Technical Community College http://shaysrebellion.stcc.edu/

p. 83 n. 6: Knox to Washington, December 17, 1786, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 85 n. 8: George Washington to Henry Knox, December 26, 1786, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 86 n. 10: Leonard L. Richards, Shays’s Rebellion: The American Revolution’s Final Battle (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), p. 34 and footnote 30, p. 172.

p. 87 n. 13: Thomas Paine, The Writings of Thomas Paine (Conway, ed.), (New York and London: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1906), Vol II, p. 188.

p. 90 n. 14: The American Museum, Vol. I, No. 6 (June, 1787), pp. 432-445.

p. 95 n. 18: America, A Narrative History (W.W. Norton and Company), online at wwnorton.com/college/history/america7_brief/content/multimedia/ch07/documents_04.htm

p. 96 n. 21: Pierre Beaudry, “Jean Sylvain Bailly: The French Revolution’s Benjamin Franklin,” Executive Intelligence Review, January 26, 2001, p. 46.

p. 97 n. 22: The full text of the Duty Act is in United States Statutes At Large, 1st Congress, Session 1, Chapter 2, 1789.

Footnotes for Chapter 5

p. 104 n. 3: Nigel Ashton and Clarissa Campbell Orr (eds.), An Enlightenment Statesman in Whig Britain: Lord Shelburne in Context, 1737-1805 (Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: The Boydell Press, 2011), p. 236.

p. 104 n. 4: “Etienne Dumont,” Historical Dictionary of Switzerland online https://hls-dhs-dss.ch/de/articles/015886/2006-02-21/

p. 105 n. 6: “Clavière, Étienne,” Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911 Edition, Vol. 6, p. 469.

p. 105 n. 7: “François d’Ivernois,” Historical Dictionary of Switzerland online https://hls-dhs-dss.ch/fr/articles/015893/2009-02-10/

p. 105 n. 8: “Jacques-Antoine Du Roveray,” Historical Dictionary of Switzerland online https://hls-dhs-dss.ch/de/articles/025693/2009-09-14/

p. 106 n. 10: “Clavière, Étienne,” Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911 Edition, Vol. 6, p. 469.

p. 106 n. 11: Violet M. Methley, Camille Desmoulins: A Biography (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1915), pp. 97-98.

p. 107 n. 12: Soulavie, op. cit., p. 238.

p. 108 n. 14: Mirabeau quoted in https://www.bartleby.com/268/7/16.html.

p. 109 n. 15: Methley, op. cit., pp. 133-134.

p. 110 n. 17: “Jean-Louis Giraud Soulavie: Account of a Conversation with Franklin,” 12 August 1781, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 110 n. 18: Soulavie, op. cit., pp. 274-275; Ibid., pp. 282-283

p. 112 n. 20: Thomas Jefferson to Lafayette, February 14, 1815. Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 112 n. 21: Richard Price to Jefferson, July 2, 1785. Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 112 n. 22: Benjamin Vaughan to Jefferson April 5, 1788. Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 112 n. 24: Jefferson to John Adams, March 14, 1820, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 113 n. 25: Jefferson to Diodati, August 3, 1789, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

Footnotes for Chapter 6

p. 121 n. 2: Letter by Hamilton to his father, September 6, 1772, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 123 n. 4: To George Washington [and the Congress] from the Public Creditors of Pennsylvania, 21 August 1789, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives

p. 126 n. 8: Papers of Thomas Jefferson (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958), Vol 15, pp. 392-398.

p. 127 n. 9: Alexander Hamilton, Report Relative to a Provision for the Support of Public Credit, January 9, 1790. Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 130 n. 14: Center for Legislative Archives, U.S. National Archives. https://www.archives.gov/legislative/features/franklin

p. 133 n. 22: Second Report on the Further Provision Necessary for Establishing Public Credit (Report on a National Bank), 13 December 1790, submitted to Congress December 14, 1790. Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 134 n. 25: University of Virginia annotation to Randolph letter to Washington, February 12, 1791. Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 134 n. 26: Jefferson to Washington, February 15, 1791, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 135 n. 27: Hamilton, “Final Version of an Opinion on the Constitutionality of an Act to Establish a Bank,” February 23, 1791, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 138 n. 34: Henry Adams, Life of Albert Gallatin (New York: Lippincott, 1879) p. 87-88.

p. 139 n. 35: Annotation to letter of Washington to Shelburne (“Lansdowne”), November 7, 1791, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 139 n. 36: George Washington Message to the United States Senate and House of Representatives Congress (State of the Union Address), January 8, 1790. Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 139 n. 37: Alexander Hamilton’s Final Version of the Report on the Subject of Manufactures, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 143 n. 42: George Washington’s Mount Vernon, mountvernon.org.

p. 144 n. 43: Edward C. Carter II, The Political Activities of Mathew Carey, Nationalist, 1760-1814, microfilmed by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan, and available from Google Books.

Footnotes for Chapter 7

p. 159 n. 3: See Anton Chaitkin, “The Legacy of George Wythe,” Executive Intelligence Review, February 14, 1986, pp. 66-67.

p. 161 n. 7: James F. Hopkins (ed.), The Papers of Henry Clay (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1959), Vol. 1, p. 6.

p. 162 n. 8: Charles Francis Adams (ed.), Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Comprising Portions of his Diary from 1795 to 1848 (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott and Company, 1874), Vol. 1, p. 444.

p. 163 n. 11: Letters on the Natural History and Internal Resources of the State of New York (New York: E. Bliss & E. White, 1822), p. 131.

p. 166 n. 14: Adams, op. cit., Vol. 1, pp. 4-6.

p. 167 n. 15: Adams, op. cit., Vol. 4, p. 392.

p. 168 n. 16: James Traub, John Quincy Adams – Militant Spirit (New York: Basic Books, 2016), p. 141; Adams, op. cit., Vol. 1, pp. 398-399.

p. 171 n. 23: Adams, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 413, 419.

p. 175 n. 28: Mathew Carey, “Desultory Reflections” (1810), in Carey, Miscellaneous Pamphlets, (Philadelphia: printed for Carey by Fry and Kammerer, 1821), No. 6.

p. 176 n. 30: Charles Biddle, Autobiography (Philadelphia: E. Claxton and Co., 1883), p. 223.

p. 177 n. 31: Benjamin Franklin, Autobiography (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co.), p. 69.

p. 178 n. 35: “History,” American Philosophical Society website, https://www.amphilsoc.org/.

p. 179 n. 36: “Clement Biddle” (1740-1814), in Charles Biddle, Autobiography, op. cit., pp. 421-422.

p. 183 n. 42: James Renwick, Life of DeWitt Clinton (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1840), p. 23-24.

p. 184 n. 44: Renwick, op. cit., pp. 23, 26.

p. 184 n. 45: “Alexander Hamilton CC 1778,” Columbia College Alumni Association website.

p. 187 n. 49: North River Steamboat

p. 190 n. 50: Hamilton to James McHenry, November 23, 1799, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 190 n. 51: Washington to Hamilton, December 12, 1799. Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 191 n. 53: Cullum, Campaigns of the War of 1812-1815, against Great Britain, Sketched and Criticised, with Brief Biographies of the American Engineers (New York: James Miller, 1879), pp. 12-62.

p. 192 n. 54: Broadside report, Massachusetts Historical Society Collections Online.

p. 192 n. 55: Cullum, op. cit., pp. 13-14.

p. 196 n. 59: William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 2, No. 3 (July 1945), pp. 273‑285.

p. 196 n. 60: Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, (New York, 1888), Vol. IX, pp. 471-473.

p. 198 n. 65: Cullum, op. cit., pp. 38-39.

p. 198 n. 66: Ibid., pp. 39-40.

Footnotes for Chapter 8

p. 205 n. 1: Waterloo Association, Napoleon Series.

p. 206 n. 2: Henry Adams, History of the United States During the Administration of James Madison (Cambridge University Press digital edition, 2011), Vol. 4, p. 53.

p. 206 n. 3: Henry Adams, Vol. 4, p. 54.

p. 207 n. 5: Papers of Henry Clay (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1959), Vol. 1, pp. 448-450.

p. 208 n. 6: The Speeches of Henry Clay, Delivered in the Congress of the United States (Philadelphia: H. C. Carey and I. Lea, 1827), pp. 1-2.

p. 209 n. 7: Daniel Mallory (ed.), The Life and Speeches of Henry Clay (Hartford: Silas Andrus and Sons, 1853), Vol. 1, p. 264.

p. 210 n. 8: American State Papers: Documents Legislative and Executive, of the Congress of the United States (Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1832), Vol. VI, section on Finance, pp. 465-467.

p. 213 n. 11: “Report of the Committee on Foreign Relations,” November 29, 1811, The Congressional Reporter: 12th Congress (Concord, Mass.: I. & W.R. Hill, undated,) pp. 41-45.

p. 214 n. 15: Thomas Hart Benton, Abridgement of the Debates of Congress (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1858), Vol. IV, p. 510.

p. 220 n. 24: Report of the House Committee on Roads and Canals, Feb. 7, 1817, in Niles Weekly Register (Feb. 22, 1817) (Baltimore: Hezekiah Niles) Volume XI (September 1816-March 1817), pp. 423-427.

p. 220 n. 25: “1815-1819,” The Pennsylvania Railroad Technical & Historical Society http://www.prrths.com/.

p. 220 n. 26: “First Inaugural Address of James Monroe,” Yale Law School, Avalon Project. https://avalon.law.yale.edu/default.asp

p. 222 n. 27: Endnote 39. Office of History of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, The History of the US Army Corps of Engineers (Alexandria, 1998), p. 140.

p. 224 n. 34: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (Harrisburg: Jacob Elder, 1815), pp. 72-83.

Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies, Vol. 57, No. 1 (January 1990), pp. 17-19.

p. 225 n. 37: Baer, op. cit., “1815-1819.”

p. 229 n. 43: Percy Bysshe Shelley, The Mask of Anarchy

p. 229 n. 44: William Hague, William Wilberforce: The Life of the Great Anti-Slave Trade Campaigner. (London: Harper Press, 2007), p. 442.

p. 231 n. 48: “Home Riggs Popham,” Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911 edition, p. 88.

p. 231 n. 49: William Spence Robertson, The Life of Miranda (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1929), Chapter 17, p. 63.

p. 232 n. 50: Speeches of Henry Lord Brougham (Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black, 1838), Vol. I, pp. 518-519.

p. 244 n. 69: New York State Engineer and Surveyor, 1906, Vol. 1, pp. 31-32.

p. 249 n. 83: Baer, op. cit., “1815-1819.”

p. 250 n. 85: The Speeches of the Different Governors to the Legislature of the State of New York (Albany: J. B. Van Steenburgh, 1825), p. 137.

p. 251 n. 86: The Proceedings of a Convention of the Friends of National Industry, Mathew Carey, Secretary, November 29-December 1, 1819 (New York: C.S. Van Winkle, 1819).

p. 252 n. 87: Churchill C. Cambreleng, An Examination of the New Tariff Proposed by the Hon. Henry Baldwin (New York: Gould and Banks, 1821).

p. 253 n. 90: John Denis Haeger, John Jacob Astor: Business and Finance in the Early Republic (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1991), pp. 204, 207, 217, 263.

p. 253 n. 92: Cambreleng, op. cit., An Examination of the New Tariff, p. 161.

p. 254 n. 93: Ibid., p. 24.

p. 257 n. 99: “Sylvanus Thayer, USMA 1808.”

p. 258 n. 100: “Sylvanus Thayer,” West Point in the Making of America webpage, Smithsonian National Museum of American History

p. 259 n. 106: Rickey, op. cit.,

p. 260 n. 107: Barker to Madison, March 24, 1814, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 261 n. 109: V. Frederick Rickey and Amy Shell-Gellasch, “Mathematics Education at West Point: The First Hundred Years – Charles Davies, Mathematics Professor, 1823-1837,” Mathematical Association of America webpage https://www.maa.org/

p. 261 n. 110: George W. Cullum, Biographical Register of Officers and Graduates of the United States Military Academy, 1802-1840 (New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1868), Vol. I, pp. 76-77.

p. 262 n. 112: “Monroe’s 1817 Tour of the North,” on https://highland.org

p. 264 n. 115: Pamela Lowry, op. cit., pp. 42-43.

p. 266 n. 118: Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association, Vol. 15 (1916), pp. 190-203.

p. 266 n. 119: T. Arron Kotlensky, “West Point Foundry and the Great Works of Mechanical Engineering before the Civil War,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Scenic Hudson webpage, 2019).

p. 272 n. 130: Baer, op. cit., “1820-1824”

p. 273 n. 131: Anton Chaitkin, “The Patriot File, Unearthed,” Executive Intelligence Review, November 2, 2007, pp. 6-16.

Footnotes for Chapter 9

p. 282 n. 1: James Monroe, “Seventh Annual Message to Congress,” American Presidency Project, University of California at Santa Barbara.

p. 284 n. 2: John Marshall, Opinion in Gibbons vs. Ogden.

p. 285 n. 3: Richard Peters (ed.), Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America (Boston: Little and Brown, 1846), Vol. IV, pp. 22-23.

p. 286 n. 5: Public Statutes at Large, Vol. 4, pp. 32-33.

p. 286 n. 7: Monroe, “Special Message,” Feb. 14, 1825, American Presidency Project, University of California at Santa Barbara.

p. 287 n. 8: Annals of the Congress of the United States, Eighteenth Congress – First Session (Washington: Gales & Seaton, 1856), p. 1979.

p. 290 n. 12: Benjamin Franklin, “A Proposal for Promoting Useful Knowledge,” 14 May 1743, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 293 n. 17: Lafayette to Madison, Dec. 17, 1784, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 297 n. 26: The Jackson-Coleman letter is reprinted in the New York periodical America Economist: Devoted to the Protection of American Labor and Industries, in the February 24, 1893 issue.

p. 300 n. 29: John Quincy Adams, Address Delivered at City of Washington, July 4, 1821 (Cambridge: Cummings & Hilliard, 1821), p. 32.

p. 304 n. 36: John Quincy Adams Inaugural Address, March 4, 1825. Yale Law School, Avalon Project https://avalon.law.yale.edu/

p. 305 n. 37: Kennedy at Rice University, September 12, 1962, https://er.jsc.nasa.gov/seh/ricetalk.htm

p. 306 n. 38: John Quincy Adams, First Annual Message to Congress, December 6, 1825, American Presidency Project, University of California at Santa Barbara.

p. 312 n. 46: Adams speech, July 4, 1828, quoted in William H. Seward, Life and Public Services of John Quincy Adams, (Auburn: Derby, Miller and Company, 1849), p. 221.

p. 314 n. 49: Yaël Ksander, “The Canal Era,” Indiana public media website.

p. 315 n. 50: American State Papers. Documents … of the Congress of the United States, from the … 11th to the … 17th Congress. (Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1834), pp. 555-556.

p. 316 n. 51: “Chicago’s Harbors: From the Chicago to the Calumet Rivers,” in Chicago History Museum, the Newberry Library, and Northwestern University, Encyclopedia of Chicago.

p. 318 n. 53: George W. Cullum, Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y. from … 1802, to 1890 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1891), Vol. I., pp. 239-240.

p. 319 n. 55: “1825” The Pennsylvania Railroad Technical & Historical Society http://www.prrths.com/.

p. 320 n. 61: The Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal, Newton Falls, Ohio, Public Library.

p. 328 n. 71: T. Arron Kotlensky, “West Point Foundry and the Great Works of Mechanical Engineering before the Civil War,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

p. 328 n. 72: “1827.” The Pennsylvania Railroad Technical & Historical Society http://www.prrths.com/.

p. 330 n. 76: “Railroad Pioneers, 2: The West Point Foundry Locomotives,” Postscripts (online blog), April 9, 2012.

p. 331 n. 79: March 15, 1831.

p. 332 n. 81: “Locomotive model, ‘Brother Jonathan,’” Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History website https://americanhistory.si.edu/collections

Footnotes for Chapter 10

p. 338 n. 1: https://web.archive.org/web/20020814060712/http://www.geocities.com/ironhorseusa2000/firsts.htm.

p. 338 n. 2: The Pilot and Philadelphia & Reading Railway Men (monthly journal), Philadelphia, May 1909, p. 3p. 3.

p. 339 n. 3: The Pilot, op. cit., p. 7.

p. 343 n. 12: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. XI, No. 85 (Philadelphia, 1870), p. 599.

p. 344 n. 14: Philadelphia, a 300-Year History (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1982), p. 344.p. 344.

p. 345 n. 16: Joseph Harrison, Jr., The Locomotive Engine and Philadelphia’s Share in its Early Improvements,] (Philadelphia: George Gebbie, 1872), pp. 43-46.

p. 347 n. 20: Nancy B. Spannaus, Hamilton Versus Wall Street (Bloomington: iUniverse, 2019), p. 155.

p. 349 n. 22: G. W. Griffin, Memoir of Col. Charles S. Todd (Philadelphia: Claxton, Remsen & Haffelfinger, 1873), pp. 103, 108-109.

p. 349 n. 24: George W. Cullum, Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y. from … 1802, to 1890 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1891), Vol, I., pp. 217-220.

p. 351 n. 25: Harrison, op. cit., pp. 52-53.

p. 353 n. 26: Laurence Oliphant, The Russian Shores of the Black Sea in the Autumn of 1852 (Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons, 1854), pp. 8-9.

p. 354 n. 27: William Otto Henderson, Friedrich List, Economist and Visionary (New York: Frank Cass and Company, 1983), p. 68.pp. 68.

p. 355 n. 28: Donald R. Serfass, “Tamaqua Railroad Attracts International Study,” “Tamaqua Railroad Attracts International Study,” Times News (Palmerton, Pennsylvania), June 29, 2019.

p. 358 n. 34: , Edgar Allan Poe 1829 letter to Isaac Lea.

p. 359 n. 35: William Hasell Wilson, Notes on the Internal Improvements of Pennsylvania, and Solomon W. Roberts, Reminiscences of the First Railroad Over the Allegheny Mountain (Philadelphia: Railway World, 1879), p. 6p. 6.

p. 359 n. 36: Eli Bowen, Pictorial Sketch-Book of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia: Willis P. Hazard, 1854), p. 182p. 182.

p. 364 n. 40: Henry C. Carey, The Past, The Present, and The Future (Philadelphia: Carey & Hart, 1848), p. 443p. 443.

p. 365 n. 42: Testimonials to H. C. Carey, Esq. Dinner at La Pierre House (Philadelphia: Collins, 1859), pp. 3-5.

p. 366 n. 44: The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 81, No. 3 (July, 1957), pp. 280-302.

p. 369 n. 46: Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 1878 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1879), pp. 158-159.

p. 370 n. 47: Smithsonian Annual Report, op. cit., p. 160.

p. 370 n. 49: Smithsonian Annual Report, op. cit., p. 159.

p. 371 n. 50: G. Waldo Dunnington, et al., Carl Friedrich Gauss: Titan of Science, (Mathematical Association of America, 2004), pp. 149-150.

p. 372 n. 54: Joseph Henry, Eulogy on Professor Alexander Dallas Bache (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1872), p. 9.p. 9

p. 372 n. 55: Dunnington, op. cit., p. 200.

p. 374 n. 58: “What is Geodesy?” National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Service.

p. 374 n. 60: Anton Chaitkin and John C. Smith, “How Britain’s Treason Machine Made War Against Mexico,” Executive Intelligence Review, December 5, 1997.

p. 377 n. 63: Journal of the Franklin Institute, July 1842, p. 379-394.

Footnotes for Chapter Appendix 2 (Richmond Junto)

p. 391 n. 1: Jefferson letter to James Madison, September 8, 1793, Founders Online, U.S. National Archives.

p. 392 n. 3: Alta Elizabeth Cassady, “Henry St George Tucker, legal educator,” College of William & Mary master’s thesis, 1978, pp. 8-9.

p. 392 n. 5: John Taylor, Tyranny Unmasked (Washington: Franklin’s Head, 1822).

Footnotes for Appendix 3 (The Albany Regency)

p. 394 n. 2: Mathew L. Davis (ed.), Private Journal of Aaron Burr During His Residence of Four Years in Europe (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1838), Vol. 1, pp. 21, 22, 27.

Footnotes for Appendix 5 (Washington Irving Circle & West Point)

p. 402 n. 3: Brian Jay Jones, Washington Irving (New York: Arcade Publishing, 2008).

p. 402 n. 4: Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association, Vol. 15 (1916), pp. 194.

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