Bibliography: Primary Sources

Author’s note:

I have relied heavily on primary sources. This book is the result of my research in two phases, before and after the Internet. Many precious resources are now newly available online, such as Founders Online, U.S. National Archives, at

Works which I believe would be of particular interest to readers are marked with an asterisk (*).

Primary sources

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* Adams, John Quincy. Address Delivered at City of Washington, July 4, 1821. Cambridge: Cummings & Hilliard, 1821. Available on Google Books.

Adams, John Quincy. Speech, July 4, 1828. See Seward, Life and Public Services of John Quincy Adams. Available on Google Books.

* Adams, John Quincy. Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Comprising Portions of his Diary from 1795 to 1848, Adams, Charles Francis (ed.). Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott and Company, 1874, Vol. 1. Available on Google Books.

Adams, John Quincy. Inaugural Address, March 4, 1825. Yale Law School, Avalon Project.

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Benton, Thomas Hart. Abridgement of the Debates of Congress. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1858, Vol. IV. Available on Google Books.

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Biddle, Nicholas. Unpublished letters in the Jonathan Williams manuscripts collection, Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington.

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Brougham, Henry. Speeches of Henry Lord Brougham. Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black, 1838, Vol. I. Available on Google Books.

Burr, Aaron, to Alston, November 20, 1815, in Memoirs of Aaron Burr, With Miscellaneous Selections from his Correspondence, Davis, Matthew L. (ed.). New York: Harper and Brothers, 1837, Vol. II.

Burr, Aaron. Davis, Mathew L. (ed.). Private Journal of Aaron Burr During His Residence of Four Years in Europe. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1838. Available at Google Books.

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* Carey, Henry C. The Past, The Present, and The Future. Philadelphia: Carey & Hart, 1848. Available at p. 443

Carey, Mathew. “Desultory Reflections (1810),” in Carey, Miscellaneous Pamphlets. Philadelphia: printed for Carey by Fry and Kammerer, 1821. Available on Google Books.

* Carey, Mathew. Essays on Political Economy. Philadelphia: Henry C. Carey and Isaac Lea, 1822; reprinted New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1968.

Carey, Mathew. The Proceedings of a Convention of the Friends of National Industry, November 29-December 1, 1819. New York: C.S. Van Winkle, 1819. Available on Google Books.

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Clinton, De Witt. Life and Writings of DeWitt Clinton. New York: Baker & Scribner, 1840.

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Coxe, Tench. “An Enquiry into the Principles on which a Commercial System for the United States Should be Founded,” in The American Museum, Vol. I, No. 6 (June, 1787). Available on Google Books.

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“Duty Act of 1789.” United States Statutes At Large, 1st Congress, Session 1, Chapter 2, 1789, online at

“Encouragement to Manufactures.” Memorial to U.S. Senate, January 22, 1811. American State Papers: Documents Legislative and Executive, of the Congress of the United States. Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1832, Vol. VI.

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Franklin, Benjamin. An Address to the Good People of Ireland, On Behalf of America. Brooklyn, New York: Historical Printing Club, 1891). Available at

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Jackson, Andrew, to Coleman. America Economist: Devoted to the Protection of American Labor and Industries (magazine, February 24, 1893 issue). Available on Google Books.

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Kennedy, John F. “Moon Speech at Rice Stadium,” September 12, 1962.

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* Lincoln, Abraham. Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1953. Available on Google Books.

* Logan, James. Of the Duties of Man: As They May Be Deduced from Nature, Valenti, Philip (ed.). Available at the Library of Congress and Philadelphia-area college libraries.

Long, Stephen H. “Report to George Graham, Acting Secretary of War,” March 4, 1817. American State Papers. Documents … of the Congress of the United States, from the … 11th to the … 17th Congress. Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1834. Available on Google Books.

Madison, James. Journal of the Constitutional Convention. Chicago: Scott Foresman and Company, 1893.

Marshall, John. Opinion in Gibbons vs. Ogden, March 2, 1824. Available at

Mirabeau, Count of. Speech to National Assembly, September 26, 1789, quoted in

Mitchill, Samuel L. Some of the Memorable Events and Occurrences in the Life of Samuel L. Mitchill. New York?: s.n., 1822.

Monroe, James. “Seventh Annual Message to Congress.” American Presidency Project, University of California at Santa Barbara.

Monroe, James. “Special Message,” Feb. 14, 1825. American Presidency Project, University of California at Santa Barbara.

Monroe, James. “First Inaugural Address of James Monroe.” Yale Law School, Avalon Project.

Morris, Robert. Diary of Robert Morris. University of Pittsburgh Press online edition.

Morris, Robert. Papers of Robert Morris. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1984, Vol. 6.

Paine, Thomas. The Writings of Thomas Paine (Conway, ed.). New York and London: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1906. Vol II. Available on Google Books.

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Priestley, Joseph. The History and Present State of Electricity. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013. Available on Google Books.

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Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. XI, No. 85 (Philadelphia, 1870). Available on Google Books.

* Shelley, Percy Bysshe. The Mask of Anarchy (poem).

Small, William, to Watt, January 7, 1768, in Smiles, Samuel, Lives of Boulton and Watt. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1865. Available on Google Books.

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U.S. House of Representatives. “Report of the House Committee on Roads and Canals,” Feb. 7, 1817, in Niles Weekly Register, Feb. 22, 1817. Baltimore: Hezekiah Niles. Vol. XI (September 1816-March 1817). Available on Google Books.

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Van Buren, Martin. “Autobiography,” published in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 1918. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1920, Vol. 2.

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